Happy Halloween everyone! Please remember that there are LOTS of things about Halloween that are scary for our dogs. Be fair, be realistic and be understanding about anything your dog seems unsure about. Be it walking past Halloween decorations and/or people in costumes or dealing with the amount of extra activity and noise a the front door as trick or treaters come by. One thing I'm going to touch on in more detail right now is dressing your dog up. This is something that applies to far more scenarios than just Halloween, but I thought this would be a good opportunity to do a video outlining how to take things slow and let your dog set the pace if you choose to put a costume on them. Also I want to note that if your dog is really resistant, ask yourself how necessary it is to dress them up tonight? Is it worth breaking your dog's trust by forcing it on them? In my video, Taya is already quite comfortable putting on clothing so this wasn't too difficult for her. Sometimes it can take weeks to properly desensitize a dog to wearing clothes, so if you pet really dislikes it, I recommend opting for a cute collar or bowtie instead for tonight. See my video below on making sure your pet's costume is comfortable for them and also letting them set the pace with putting it on:
I will post another video with more detail on desensitizing your dog to having its paws handled soon. Taya can be a bit hard to read because she will also lick her lips when she is anticipating food, but as a general rule if you aren't sure - give your dog some time! It may take longer, but it is worth it in the long run. You can see how quickly Taya comes back to try again because she trusts me :)
One of my biggest burdens as a trainer is trying to educate owners about the importance of early socialization (before 16 weeks) for puppies, while at the same time doing everything in my power to minimize the risk of exposure to parvovirus (aka parvo). Since starting to run puppy classes in 2013 under the name Paws ‘N Effect, I had never had a puppy with parvo come through any of my facilities (I currently run classes in Elora, Cambridge and offer an in-home board and train service from my home outside Kitchener). That changed this summer with a little Rottweiler puppy named Bear. At 8.5 weeks old, Bear had a case of diarrhea, which was tested and confirmed to be giardia. It appeared to resolve with treatment, but 3 days after treatment ended, it would end up progressing to a very sick 10 week old puppy. Bear was very lucky to survive thanks to excellent care from Beaverdale Animal Hospital and a night at the Emergency Vet Clinic of Waterloo.
Aside from treating Bear immediately, the first thing I did upon finding out he had parvo was contact all the owners of puppies in my care and the 2 puppies he had met in classes to notify them and ask them to watch for signs and boost their vaccines ASAP. All puppies in my care were given their next booster shots (most were 11 weeks and given their 2nd shot 1 week early) as a precaution and were closely monitored for symptoms and tested a week later – all 7 dogs in my care tested negative, and the 2 puppies he'd met in class were also clear. I firmly believe the biggest 2 reasons that all the other pups were clear were 1) keeping up to date on vaccines and 2) my strict policy on isolation and cleanup/disinfection when dealing with giardia, which also helps to prevent the spread of parvo. I don’t know exactly when or where he got the virus (the incubation period can vary between 3-14 days). Initially, I blamed myself thinking he got it when we went to get him a life jacket at a pet store (3 days before symptoms), but it could have also been during his first vet visit at 8 weeks (14 days before symptoms) or sometime in between. I will never know, especially since he’d been on medication for giardia, which would may have helped to manage any symptoms if he’d had it earlier. Regardless, I covered the expenses as I didn’t feel right passing them on to the owner. I now require imprinting puppies to be signed up for pet insurance ASAP.
As for disinfecting of the facilities, I followed vet recommendations to bleach (I used a 20% solution) every hard surface – walls, floors, cupboards, xpens, crates, etc – and we steam cleaned any soft surfaces. Bear was isolated to a separate yard and a room with a hallway between he and the other pups so he could still see and hear regular household activities, but we had to change clothes, shoes, and wash our hands when crossing the hallway to handle him. To continue his socialization during this time, I would drive him places to people watch from the back of my RAV4, and had people drop treats into his crate to interact with him without touching him. As soon as we got a negative stool sample for him (2 weeks later) we did as much socialization as possible to make up for lost time. Bear is now a very happy and healthy, well-socialized little guy, who is excelling in his puppy classes at PetSmart in Sault Ste. Marie (Sadly there is no Puppy Power there).
Despite me having cleaned and disinfected everything, I have made the decision to wait until January to board any pups without their 2nd vaccine because puppies are at higher risk before their 2nd vaccine. Although I did saturate my kennel area with a 20% bleach solution, it is much harder to disinfect outdoor areas, and the virus could potentially live in outdoor environments for 5-7 months. Any owners who have contacted me for imprinting during this time have been asked to start their imprinting with one of my other trainers, and can have their puppy come to me after receiving their second shots if they so choose.
Okay – so why am I telling this story?
Up until this summer, I had probably trained/boarded over 1000 puppies, giving them an incredible start to life with positive socialization in a controlled environment. I check the vaccine status of every puppy coming into classes or boarding, and have any new puppies coming into my home tested for giardia & other parasites. There is no guarantee with anything you do that your puppy will not contract the disease no matter how careful you are. You could have a breeder have a puppy tested for parvo before you get it, and it wouldn’t test positive until it is symptomatic. You could step through an infected area and bring the disease into your home on the bottom of your shoe, or wildlife could track it into your backyard – it is considered by vets to be “ubiquitous, meaning that it is present in every environment unless regular disinfection is applied” (Pet Assure, 2017). I want you to think about that for a second and then think about places you could take your puppy to socialize that are regularly disinfected with bleach or steam cleaned (pretty much the only ways to kill the virus). I can assure you that myself and any trainer to whom I recommend you take your dog is doing this, and that the low incidence of parvo infection compared to the places the virus is likely present speaks volumes about the efficacy of the vaccine. That said, even with proper vaccination, “a small percentage of dogs do not develop protective immunity and remain susceptible to infection” (American Veterinary Medical Assocation, 2017). This includes adult dogs. There are no guarantees with anything you do.
Now I’d like you to consider the number of dogs who end up in shelters due to lack of early training and the importance of socialization. According to a study by the National Council on Pet Population Study and Policy, 96% of surrendered dogs had never had formal training (Arthur, N., 2009). In a Literature Review entitled “Welfare Implications of Socialization of Puppies and Kittens” by the American Veterinary Medical Association, the sensitive socialization period is considered to be from 3-14 weeks of age, during which time puppies are most flexible to exploring new stimuli and environments. After 14 weeks of age, dogs become less flexible and may become fearful in new situations, and fearful or reactive with new people, pets or in new environments (American Veterinary Medical Association, 2015). I highly recommend you click the above hyperlink and read further details on your own, but overall the AVMA recommends thorough socialization by 12-14 weeks of age, with earlier being better and “when well-managed puppy or kitten socialization classes are available, owners are encouraged to take advantage of these as a source of information and a safe environment for socialization and new learning activities” (American Veterinary Medical Association, 2015).
Last but not least, I encourage you to know the signs of parvo and don’t hesitate to seek veterinary care if you suspect your puppy may have contracted it. Bear was extremely lucky to have had immediate treatment.
Early detection and treatment are critical to successful outcomes, with survival rates approaching 90% with proper treatment (American Veterinary Medical Association, 2017).
More information on diagnosis, treatment, and prevention can be found on the AVMA’s website here: Canine Parvovirus.
I don’t have statistics on the number of behavioural problems I see that stem from lack of early socialization, but I can tell you that the number would greatly exceed the number of parvo cases I have seen come through my facility. To say that I was discouraged by this case would be an understatement. However, every single puppy owner who I’d contacted to explain the situation was very understanding, and I thank all of you for your support and words of encouragement during a very difficult time. My apologies again to those for whom I had to cancel boarding last minute. Special thanks to Norma Jeanne, Puppy Power’s founder, who assured me that I was doing everything right, that she had been through it before too, and that the owner did not blame her. I don’t think I would have continued to train if it weren’t for the outpouring of support from other trainers and clients during this time. Thank you for your trust and for making the best choices for your dogs.
American Veterinary Medical Association. 2015, June 9. Welfare Implications of Socialization of Puppies and Kittens. Retrieved from https://www.avma.org/KB/Resources/LiteratureReviews/Pages/Welfare-Implications-of-Socialization-of-Puppies-and-Kittens.aspx on October 16, 2017.
American Veterinary Medical Association. 2017. Canine Parvovirus. Retrieved from https://www.avma.org/public/PetCare/Pages/canine-parvovirus.aspx on October 16th, 2017.
Arthur, Nan. 2009. Chill Out Fido!: How to Calm Your Dog. Wenatchee, Washington USA: Dogwise Publishing.
Pet Assure. 2017. Canine Parvovirus: What is it? Retrieved from https://www.petassure.com/new-newsletters/canine-parvovirus-what-is-it on October 16, 2017.
I just came across this TEDtalk and thought it'd be great to share it and put a dog trainer's perspective on it.
You can watch it here: https://youtu.be/w-HYZv6HzAs
According to Dr. Josephe, who is a soccer coach at Ryerson University, in his TEDtalk, entitled “The Skill of Self-Confidence”, the first and most important skill to look for in an athlete is their self-confidence. Self-confidence is one’s ability to believe in themselves despite adversity and not give up. This is an important skill to have in our everyday lives, and I would argue that it's an important skill to instill in our dogs. I challenge myself daily to instill this skill in every dog handler I teach. In a world of people who are quick to point out failure and offer discouragement, it is important to remain positive and persevere to reach your goals whether you’re doing a sport, training a dog, or trying to succeed in life in general. Using the quote, “I am the captain of my ship and the master of my fate,” he reminds the audience that we are the only people who can decide if we’re going to accept failure or push through and not give up until we succeed. We also make choices about the way we influence one another or our dogs. There will be times where it is difficult, and I liked his idea of having a brag sheet to pull out to remind yourself of your successes when you’re going through the storm. Maybe you're working on reactivity and you're finding that your dog is reacting less at certain distances now or that you're able to get them calm and engaged with you faster after they do have an outburst. Celebrate the small successes, write them down and keep them as a reminder for times that you get discouraged. As well, he reminds the audience not to keep the company of people who try to tear them down. This is important because your self-confidence can be influenced by those around you. If people start to influence you enough to make you believe you can’t do something, then you won’t (this is explained by the self-fulfilling prophecy). Part of what I love about Reactive classes is seeing my clients encouraging and helping eachother. There is nothing more rewarding as a dog trainer than getting people helping one another to set their dogs up for success and see the results of their efforts week by week. You wouldn't believe how many people are scared to bring their dogs to Reactive class because they're worried that their dog will be the worst behaved dog and are concerned about what others will think. I remind them that we are all working on this together, and I am so proud of how encouraging my clients are to one another.
In keeping with the idea that self-confidence is easily influenced by others, when we are teaching or coaching others (human or canine), we need to keep in mind that positive reinforcement goes a lot further than criticism and focusing on mistakes. The goal is to teach and encourage while building self-confidence in others. Dr. Josephe mentions in a team setting that pointing out the individual who did things well and building that player up, while discussing what was right about what they did rather than singling a player out for doing something wrong is a lot more constructive. This could easily extend to parent-child relationships, relationships with a spouse/partner and dog-handler relationships as well. Most people find it very easy to focus on what went wrong and will just focus on trying to fix things. While continuous improvement is important to growth, the way in which it is encouraged makes a huge difference. Pointing out what someone did right can help build their self-confidence and put them in the right frame of mind to take on a challenge and do better. If you point out enough things someone does wrong, they will become discouraged and will want to give up. This goes for dogs as well as people.
When I am teaching families how to train their dogs, I find a big part of my job is getting the parent to help focus on the things the kids do well with their puppy and building from that rather than nit-picking all the things they do wrong. Kids are SO much more responsive to positive reinforcement and keeping it fun and light greatly improves their participation and engagement. The very same applies to training dogs. A dog who is continuously corrected learns much slower and is hesitant to try something new/afraid to make a mistake, often exhibiting avoidance behavior and an unwillingness to work with its handler. A dog who is constantly being set up to do the right behavior and has a handler who is quick to catch and reward them for doing that right behavior is eager to learn and display the right behavior more. I often challenge owners to teach their dogs the same way they would want to be taught. Find a distance your dog CAN succeed and build from there. Nobody wants to have someone come down on them for every mistake they make. It’s stressful and demoralizing. It’s much more productive to find a starting point where someone is doing something right and build from there.
If you've ever taken a class with me you have probably heard me say over and over again that we want to i) get the behaviour first and then ii) pair it with the word. I find a lot of people use the word "drop it" with their dogs without ever having done any training beforehand to teach the dog what drop it actually means.
I like to start this with a toy for a few reasons. First because I want to be able to give the object back as a reward; and secondly, I want the dog to feel like "drop it" is part of the game. It should never be taught with intimidation or by trying to scare the dog because as mentioned in Part I, this tends to make the dog defensive and you may end up causing your dog to guard. The point is to make the dog want to spit the item out happily.
Step 1 - Offer or toss the toy to entice the dog to pick it up in its mouth.
Step 2 - Once the dog is holding the toy, show the dog (let it sniff if need be) a high value (read: smelly & tasty) treat, and be ready to use your reward marker ("yes", "good", or a click if you are using a clicker) the moment the dog spits out the toy to take the treat.
Repeat Steps 1 & 2 until the dog is quickly spitting out the object as soon as the treat is presented.
Step 3 - Get your dog to take the toy again and add your cue (say "drop it") while you show the treat, still using your reward marker the moment the dog spits out the toy each time. You want to say "drop it" in a normal voice like you would say "sit" or any other cue. The point is to teach a word that can be used as an instruction; not to say it in a growly tone that might scare or intimidate your dog or be perceived as a threat.
Repeat Step 3 a few times and then try using your cue (drop it) without showing the treat right away, being ready to use your reward marker the moment the dog spits out the toy. If it does - great! That means the dog has associated the cue (drop it) with the behaviour (spitting the item out). You're ready to move on to Step 4.
Key Point: If it doesn't spit it out, don't keep repeating your cue. This means that the dog has not yet associated the cue with the behaviour yet, and repeating the cue will do nothing but make the dog start to ignore the word. You will need to practice Step 3 while separating the cue and prompt (showing the treat). What I mean by this is when you say "drop it", give the dog 1-2 seconds to think about/offer the behaviour before showing the treat to prompt the dog to drop the toy. Repeat this step until the dog starts to offer the behaviour (drop the toy) within 1-2 seconds of hearing the cue (drop it).
Step 4 - Now that your dog is spitting out the toy and expecting a treat, it's time to work on having the treat come later and from further away. You will still use your reward marker the moment your dog drops the item to mark the correct behaviour but the reward itself will start to come later. I usually start by having the treat in my pocket and practicing the drop it exercise, having the treat come out of my pocket once they have dropped the toy. Then I repeat the exercise having the treat come from the counter a step or two away from me, working up to getting the dog to drop the item with me going further away to get the treat. The idea here is to show the dog that the reward will come later or from further away. This is an important step if you want your dog to drop items when you don't have a treat in your hand!
Once your dog is doing this well, it's time to switch it up with some different variations of the game and make it more challenging. Here's where you can get creative, but here are some ideas that I've used with lots of success:
Earlier this week, Oakley (my rottweiler) disappeared into the bush for a few minutes and came back crunching on something that sounded like bone. He looked pretty proud of himself, but I knew it was probably something I didn't want him to have - and likely something I didn't want to touch! We weren't far from home anyways, so I let him carry it home so I could a) grab a really high value reward (lunch meat) to give him if he dropped it/trade for if he didn't just offer the drop in the first place; and b) grab a few plastic bags to pick the item up with after he dropped it. He spit it out willingly and scored some meat and if you want to see what he spit out, click the button below - WARNING if you don't want to see a dead animal part, don't click the button!
One thing I've found with my dogs (and dogs in general) is that they really aren't grossed out by anything; in fact, the nastier something is to us humans, the more valuable it usually is to the dog. Most of these nasty things turn up when we aren't prepared and they usually aren't things we regularly practice asking our dogs to drop, which is why it's a good idea to build your "drop it" cue with a higher value items and practice it regularly with a variety of items so it's there when you need it. I will be discussing in Part II how to get a reliable drop it cue, but for this post I am just going to say if you don't have a good drop cue, trading for something higher value is going to give you best results.
What not to do:
All of the above scenarios can be avoided by having a reliable drop it cue. You will be less likely to panic, run at your dog and shout if you are confident that your dog will drop items on command. You also won't give your dog a chance to turn it into a game of chase if you teach them to drop items on command (they younger they learn it and less chances they have to turn it into a game of chase, the better). Lastly if your dog is happy to drop items and is expecting to get something better in return, they won't be guarding items in the first place.
Any time you try to take something from your dog while trying to use intimidation you are creating a negative association with the situation, and the next time it happens you will likely see more avoidance and/or defensive behaviour, which will cause it to become harder to get items away each time. The reason I have mentioned to trade for something higher value is that you want the dog to be happy to give the item up - dogs don't guard things when they know they are going to get something better. They do appear to guard more fiercely when they are being defensive and have a negative association with having things taken away. Many owners don't realize that they actually create or exacerbate guarding behaviour by punishing or intimidating their dogs. Once again please consult a qualified positive reinforcement trainer for hands-on help if you are seeing guarding behaviour. This post is NOT intended as a fix in resource guarding cases.
Check back soon for "Drop It" Part II: How to get it!
When you think about getting a dog, there are a lot of questions you consider: Can I afford the food, toys, vet bills, training, and other expenses? Am I choosing a breed that fits my lifestyle? Do I have time to commit to meeting its exercise and training needs? Often the questions asked pertain to early stages of life and we often (mistakenly) assume that the older the dog gets, the less it will need. While in some ways an older dog is a lot easier to manage than a younger dog, I am learning with my ~12 year old doberman, Dexter, that old dogs don't need less - their needs just change.
You figure once you get your pup making it through the night without needing a potty break that your sleepless nights are over. Wrong. One of the first changes I started to notice as Dex entered his senior years was that he would pace at night, and sometimes I would wake up to him whining and sometimes even bumping into things and I'd need to turn on the lights to help him find his way to bed. Cataracts are common in older dogs and my vet suggested leaving a bathroom light on or setting up a nightlight to help with this. While it did help, I do find there are nights where he is just restless and has a hard time settling. I have also noticed that if there is a thunderstorm, he now often drools and gets quite anxious despite having never had an issue with storms in the past. I never thought he'd need a thunder-shirt, but now he has one (and looks pretty cute in it).
Most days, Dex is still a big, playful and active puppy but there are days he wakes up very stiff and just wants to sleep on the couch and have space away from the other dogs. I have a front living room for him to go to so he can get away from the other dogs, and he definitely appreciates having his own space to retreat to at times. When I sit down beside him on my laptop answering emails, he will rest his head or paw in my lap to remind me that just because he wants to sit out the hike that day doesn't mean he doesn't need me to spend time with him. Also worth noting is that his mental needs haven't decreased - I may not be asking my arthritic dog to offer sits or lie down on command as much but he still enjoys less physically demanding tasks and things like treat-balls and puzzle toys, still enjoys interactions with other dogs most days, and he still loves to get new toys. The key is judging from day to day what he is up for, expecting his tolerance level for some things to be lower on some days than others, and being creative in finding ways to stimulate his mind. Also being patient and understanding when he does odd things like barking at a wall or just very out of context behaviours in general.
A lot of what I have experienced with Dex is well explained by many accounts of canine cognitive dysfunction, which you can read more about here: http://www.petmd.com/dog/conditions/neurological/5-signs-dog-dementia
Perhaps one of the most difficult things for me to accept as a trainer is a regression in his reactivity training. We had made huge gains with him - getting to the point where we could have people come over for pool parties and have him settle within a minute after someone new came or sometimes not reacting at all to now needing to give him more time to learn to trust new people again. No matter what, it is always about setting him up to succeed and setting realistic expectations.
A dog truly is a lifelong commitment and it really breaks my heart to see older dogs in shelters knowing how hard it is on my own dog some days to cope with his changing body even though he has a really supportive and stable environment. I hope this post can encourage people to understand what to expect as their pets age and how to make sure to provide for them in their golden years.
Do you have an older dog? What are some changes you've noticed and ways you've helped your dog to cope?
With the KW Pet Expo coming up I've been asked by a few people if they think its a good place to take their dog for socialization. My answer on this one depends on if you have built up to crowds/close passes with strange dogs and if your dog is bombproof enough to handle other dogs potentially barking/lunging at them if another owner fails to maintain enough space/control of their dog. Think about it like defensive driving - it's not just you but others on the road or in the space that could cause problems for you and your dog. If you've built up to this level of stimulation and feel confident navigating your dog through it - Great! I'm not saying it's a bad place for every dog, BUT for many dogs this could be an overwhelming and stressful situation, in which case it is not an ideal place to work on socializing your dog. Having enough space to move away from scary things is important and often not an option in crowded areas/aisles. Karen Pryor has a great article for more information on appropriate socialization: https://clickertraining.com/dont-socialize-the-dog. If it seems like it might be overwhelming, your pup might prefer that you go without him/her and focus on your shopping and bring him/her back some new swag!
Dogs are amazing creatures that bring joy into our lives in countless ways and love us even when we make mistakes. Being a dog trainer doesn't make me immune to making mistakes (that little girl pictured left is very quick to point that out!) and while I have many answers for common behavioural problems, there isn't a day that goes by that I don't learn something new from the dogs that come into my life - be it in classes or in my home. I've decided to open up and share some of my experiences through this blog for the same reason I decided to become a trainer in the first place: to help people understand their dogs and build a lasting relationship built on trust. So whether you own a dog and can relate to some of these experiences or just want to stop by to see some cute pictures or videos and laugh at some puppy antics, I hope you enjoy some of the tales I am about to share. The majority of these posts will be tales of dogs who have come to stay at my home, but from time to time I may share (with permission) some of the tales of the dogs I have had the pleasure of helping along my path as a dog trainer. Feel free to share your experiences in the comments or ask questions. I just ask (as always) that you keep it positive :)